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Biografía José Mujica

> Uruguay > Políticos > Frente Amplio > José Mujica Cordano
José Mujica José Mujica
José Mujica
Un político uruguayo, actual presidente de la República Oriental del Uruguay. | A Uruguayan politician, the President of Uruguay since 2010.
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José Mujica Biografía

ESP:

 

José Alberto Mujica Cordano (n. Montevideo, Uruguay; 20 de mayo de 1935), conocido popularmente como José Mujica o Pepe Mujica, es un político uruguayo, actual presidente de la República Oriental del Uruguay.

 

Con un pasado guerrillero, fue elegido diputado y senador para posteriormente ocupar el cargo de ministro de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca entre 2005 y 2008. Fue el líder del Movimiento de Participación Popular, sector mayoritario del partido de izquierda Frente Amplio, hasta su renuncia el 24 de mayo de 2009.

 

Desde 2005 está casado con la senadora y dirigente histórica del Movimiento de Participación Popular Lucía Topolansky, tras una prolongada convivencia.

 

Carrera política

En las elecciones de 1958 triunfa por primera vez el Herrerismo y Erro fue designado ministro de Trabajo siendo acompañado por Mujica en esa época, aunque sin llegar a ser funcionario del Ministerio. En 1962, Erro y Mujica abandonan el Partido Nacional para crear la Unión Popular, junto al Partido Socialista del Uruguay y un pequeño grupo llamado "Nuevas Bases". Luego del retorno a la democracia salió en libertad, beneficiado por la Ley n.º 15.737 del 8 de marzo de 1985, que decretó una amnistía de delitos políticos, comunes y militares conexos con éstos, cometidos a partir del 1.º de enero de 1962.

 

En las elecciones de 1994 fue elegido diputado por Montevideo. Manifestó sentirse "como un florero" al comenzar su actividad parlamentaria. No obstante, su presencia en la arena política fue llamando la atención de la gente, ya que Mujica supo capitalizar el descontento. En las elecciones de 1999 fue elegido senador. Simultáneamente, su sector político apuntaba a una estrategia de acumulación. Ese año se publicó el libro Mujica, de Miguel Ángel Campodónico, donde se recogen la vida y pensamiento del guerrillero convertido en político.

 

En las elecciones de 2004 su movimiento obtuvo más de 300.000 votos (la votación más alta del país), que significó un importante porcentaje dentro del Frente Amplio, consolidándose así como la primera fuerza dentro del partido de gobierno.

 

El 1 de marzo de 2005 el presidente de la República, Tabaré Vázquez, lo designó ministro de Ganadería, Agricultura y Pesca. Estuvo acompañado en la subsecretaría por Ernesto Agazzi, de profesión ingeniero agrónomo.

 

José Mujica prestó juramento el 1.º de marzo de 2010 en el Palacio Legislativo, para desempeñar el cargo de presidente de la República Oriental del Uruguay. Esta promesa fue tomada por su propia esposa Lucía Topolansky, por ser la primera Senadora de la Nación. Se desarrolló con la presencia de autoridades de diferentes Partidos Políticos uruguayos y de varios representantes de diferentes países, como Hillary Clinton, Cristina Fernández, Néstor Kirchner, Rafael Correa, Hugo Chávez, entre otros. Pronunció un discurso muy elogiado y comentado; en el mismo sobrevolaban su pasado guerrillero, sus ideas y su largo camino hacia la presidencia.

 

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ENG:

 

José Alberto "Pepe" Mujica Cordano (born 20 May 1935) is a Uruguayan politician, and the President of Uruguay since 2010. A former guerrilla fighter and a member of the Broad Front coalition of left-wing parties. Mujica was  Minister of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries from 2005 to 2008 and a Senator afterwards. As the candidate of the Broad Front, he won the 2009 presidential election and took office as President on 1 March 2010.

 

He has been described as "the world's 'poorest' president", as he donates around 90 percent of his $12,000 monthly salary to charities to benefit poor people and small entrepreneurs.

 

Early life

In the early 1960s, he joined the newly formed Tupamaros movement, an armed political group inspired by the Cuban revolution. Mujica was captured by the authorities on four occasions, and he was among those political prisoners who escaped Punta Carretas Prison in 1971. He was eventually re-apprehended in 1972, and was shot by the police six times. After the military coup in 1973, he was transferred to a military prison where he served 14 years.

 

Political career

Several years after the restoration of democracy, Mujica and the Tupamaros joined other left-wing organizations to create the Movement of Popular Participation, a political party that was accepted within the Broad Front coalition. In the 1994 general elections, Mujica was elected deputy and in the elections of 1999 he was elected senator. Due in part to Mujica’s charisma, the MPP continued to grow in popularity and votes, and by 2004, it had become the largest of any faction within the Broad Front. In the elections of that year, Mujica was re-elected to the Senate, and the MPP obtained over 300,000 votes, thus consolidating its position as the primary political force within the coalition and a major force behind the victory of presidential candidate Tabaré Vázquez.

 

On March 1, 2005, President Tabaré Vázquez designated Mujica as the Minister of Livestock, Agriculture and Fisheries (Mujica's own professional background was in the agricultural sector). Upon becoming minister, Mujica resigned his position as senator. He held this position until a cabinet change in 2008, when he resigned and was replaced by Ernesto Agazzi. Mujica then returned to his seat in the Senate.

 

On June 28, 2009, Mujica won the primary elections becoming the presidential candidate of the Broad Front for the 2009 general election. In October, Mujica won a plurality of over 48 percent of the votes compared to 30 percent for former president Lacalle, falling short of the majority required by the constitution, while at the same time renewing the Broad Front's parliamentary majority for the next legislature (2010–2015).

 

In June 2012, his government made a move to legalize state-controlled sales of marijuana in order to fight drug-related crimes and health issues, and stated that they would ask global leaders to do the same. Time magazine featured an article on the matter. Mujica said that by regulating Uruguay’s estimated $40 million-a-year marijuana business, the state will take it away from drug traffickers, and weaken the drug cartels. The state would also be able to keep track of all marijuana consumers in the country, and provide treatment to the most serious abusers, much like what is done with alcoholics.

 

Personal

In 2005, Mujica married Lucía Topolansky, a fellow Tupamaro member and current senator, after many years of co-habitation. They have no children and live on an austere farm in the outskirts of Montevideo where they cultivate chrysanthemums as an economic activity, having declined to live in the opulent presidential palace or use its staff. His humble lifestyle is reflected by his choice of an aging Volkswagen Beetle as transport. His wife owns the farm they live on. The Economist in an article writes that some Uruguayans see him as "a roly-poly former guerrilla who grows flowers on a small farm and swears by vegetarianism", but he is not vegetarian. He does not believe in a god.

 

source

16.08.2010

updated: 2013-06-24

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