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Biografía Hugo Chávez

> Venezuela > Políticos > Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela > Hugo Chávez Frías
Hugo Chávez Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
Fue un político y militar venezolano. | A Venezuelan politician who was the President of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013.
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Hugo Chávez Biografía

ESP:

 

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (Sabaneta, Barinas, Venezuela; 28 de julio de 1954 - Caracas, Venezuela; 5 de marzo de 2013) fue un político y militar venezolano, presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela desde el 2 de febrero de 1999 hasta su muerte. Ingresó al Ejército Nacional de Venezuela en 1971 donde desarrolló su interés por la política y fue cofundador en 1982 del Movimiento Bolivariano Revolucionario 200 (MBR-200) en medio de la crisis económica y social que conllevó al llamado Caracazo en 1989. En 1992, Chávez, junto con otros militares del MBR-200, intentó un golpe de Estado contra el entonces presidente Carlos Andrés Pérez, el que fracasó y por el cual fue encarcelado durante dos años, hasta ser indultado más tarde por el entonces presidente Rafael Caldera. Chávez se postuló a los comicios presidenciales de 1998 con el apoyo del Movimiento Quinta República (MVR), y tras obtener la victoria se convirtió en el 47.º presidente de Venezuela, con lo que buscaba consolidar la llamada Revolución bolivariana basada en su proyecto socialismo del siglo XXI.

 

Chávez inicialmente abogó por derogar la Constitución de Venezuela de 1961 en 1999, impulsando un Referéndum constituyente que fue aprobado por más del 80% de votación popular. Luego impulsó un segundo referéndum constitucional que resultó en la ratificación de la nueva Constitución de Venezuela de 1999 con el 71,78% de los votos. La polarización política desembocó en el golpe de Estado de 2002, en el que fue derrocado por dos días por el industrial venezolano Pedro Carmona. Chávez fue restituido en el poder tras un contragolpe popular en el que millares de personas salieron a las calles en su apoyo, lo que obligó a la fuga de los golpistas. La tensión política continuó con los hechos de la plaza Altamira y el "paro petrolero" entre diciembre de 2002 y febrero de 2003.

 

Escritores como Nikolas Kozloff le han denominado un «fenómeno político», un mandatario que mantuvo excelentes relaciones con países latinoamericanos, pero que rechazó el imperialismo estadounidense.

 

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ENG:

 

Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías (28 July 1954 – 5 March 2013) was a Venezuelan politician who was the President of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. He was formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when it merged with several other parties to form the United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV), which he led until 2012.

 

Following Chavism, his own political ideology of Bolivarianism and Socialism of the 21st Century, he focused on implementing socialist reforms in the country as a part of a social project known as the Bolivarian Revolution. He implemented the 1999 Venezuelan Constitution, participatory democratic councils, the nationalization of several key industries, and increased government funding of health care and education and made significant reductions in poverty with oil revenues. The Bolivarian Missions have entailed the construction of thousands of free medical clinics for the poor, the institution of educational campaigns that have reportedly made more than one million adult Venezuelans literate, and the enactment of food and housing subsidies.

 

Born into a working-class family in Sabaneta, Barinas, Chávez became a career military officer, and after becoming dissatisfied with the Venezuelan political system, he founded the secretive Revolutionary Bolivarian Movement-200 (MBR-200) in the early 1980s to work towards overthrowing it. Chávez led the MBR-200 in an unsuccessful coup d'état against the Democratic Action government of President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1992, for which he was imprisoned. Released from prison after two years, he founded a socialist political party, the Fifth Republic Movement, and was elected president of Venezuela in 1998. He was re-elected in 2000. During his second presidential term, he introduced the system of Bolivarian Missions, Communal Councils, and worker-managed cooperatives, as well as a program of land reform, while also nationalizing various key industries. He was re-elected in 2006 with over 60% of the vote. On 7 October 2012, Chávez won his country's presidential election for a fourth time, defeating Henrique Capriles, and was elected for another six-year term.

 

Closely aligning himself with the communist governments of Fidel and then Raúl Castro in Cuba and the socialist governments of Evo Morales in Bolivia, Rafael Correa in Ecuador, and Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua, his presidency was seen as a part of the socialist "pink tide" sweeping Latin America. Along with these governments, Chávez described his policies as anti-imperialist, being a prominent adversary of the United States's foreign policy as well as a vocal critic of US-supported neoliberalism and laissez-faire capitalism. He supported Latin American and Caribbean cooperation and was instrumental in setting up the pan-regional Union of South American Nations, the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas, the Bank of the South, and the regional television network TeleSur. Chávez was a highly controversial and divisive figure both at home and abroad. On occasion he used undiplomatic language towards other world leaders, having compared US president George W. Bush to a donkey and the devil.

 

After winning the October 2012 presidential election, he was to have been sworn in on 10 January 2013, but the National Assembly of Venezuela agreed to postpone the inauguration to allow him time to recover from medical treatment in Cuba, resulting from a return of the cancer that was originally diagnosed in June 2011. Chávez died in Caracas on 5 March 2013 at the age of 58.

 

Chávez used enabling laws on four occasions: starting in 1999 for 6 months, in 2000 for 12, in 2007 for 18 and in 2010 for 12 months. The use of enabling laws was heavily criticized by the opposition.

 

source

October 10, 2011

updated: 2013-10-23

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